Saturday, February 1, 2020

History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

History - Essay Example 1). The term 'Black Death' can refer to either the pneumonic plague or the bubonic plague. â€Å"The pneumonic plague is the deadlier of the two diseases killing its victims is two to three days† (Spielvogel, 2003, p. 275). It was strongest in the larger cities because of the dense populations that lived there and the less sanitary conditions that could be maintained in these urban areas. â€Å"The plague would visit an area, last for about a year, kill about one-third of the population, and move on. †¦ Most historians believe that between 1347 and 1351, at least one-third of Europe’s total human population (20 to 30 million people) died† (Piccolo, 2004). Deaths alone were not the only by-product of the Plague, though. The way the church handled the crisis and the large number of deaths that took place affected the economic, social and political landscape of this large region of the world. The first outbreak of the plague was strongest in the poorer sections of the city because these people were more likely to live in unsanitary conditions and had limited means by which to protect their health. Modern science is able to confirm the Plague was spread by the rat flea who took the disease from the rat and spread it to the human population, so areas that were infested with rats were among the first to show symptoms (Gottfried, 1983). ... Frightened churchmen shut up their churches and fled to the country as did many people in the secular world (Luftus et al, 1999). Because of their ineffectiveness in the crisis, the church lost a great deal of its authority and leadership and the people began to question whether it should ever have held that position. Many people assumed God was angry with them and much more penitent and harsh religious practices were developed to appease God’s wrath through sacrifice. Economic conditions changed dramatically as competitors from other countries entered the market through the development of the guilds. The guilds changed economic conditions for individual citizens and introduced another means by which cities and towns might be run. â€Å"The effects of regression on rural economy were far-reaching. Labour was scarce and wages rose rapidly. In England and in Castile and elsewhere legislation was attempted to fix wages, but without success† (Nohl, 1926, p. 20). Workers, es pecially peasants who were finally making a decent wage, rebelled violently to suggested pay reductions and though the intent was sound, its affects were disastrous. At the same time that the Plague was decimating the population, the faith in the One Religion and changing the economic base of entire nations, the Catholic Church was engaged in an all-out war on itself. Pope Clement V declined to move to Rome when he was appointed in 1305 and moved the papacy to Avignon supposedly because of civil unrest in Rome, but more likely so he would be closer to the French monarchy he served (Menache, 2002). By 1378, this had become a problem. After struggling against a highly suspicious and

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